The Anti-Machine Page
"Anti-Machine" (or Xputer) stands for the counterpart of the von Neumann paradigm. The anti-machine uses data counters instead of a programm counter. It is datastream-based and does not run any instruction streams.
Reconfigurable Computing pages @ TU Kaiserslautern
These Reconfigurable Computing pages are about a route to Reinvent Compting. This term is not new. See the keynote by Burton Smith (former Cray CTO).
Why Reinvent Compting? Pse, study Thomas Sterling's interview entitled: 'I Think We Will Never Reach Zettaflops'. See HPCwire. Thomas Sterling takes us through some of the most critical developments in high performance computing, explaining why the transition to exascale is going to be very different than the ones in the past. I agree. However, I believe, we will reach Zetaflops --- by Reconfigurable Computing.
The Success of the
Industry is RAM-based.
Why a Generalization of Software Engineering ?
Panel discussions and keynote addresses are booming since the computing crisis caused by the von Neumann syndrome. Because of the coincidence of several disruptive developments we need to Reinvent Computing . We cannot afford any more the CPU-centric, i. e. instruction-stream-centric Software-centric Aristotelian world model of computing. We are forced to go toward heterogeneous computing systems based on a Kopernican World model of Computing (Figure A) . We urgently need the Generalization of Software Eingineering (SE) into Program Engineering (PE) which interlaces two machine paradigms:
By migration of applications from software to configware/flowware speed-up factors and power saving factors by up to several orders of magnitude can be obtained . We also need a third area: Configware Engineering (CE). See  -  and fig. A
We have to set up Program Engineering (PE) education to replace Software Engineering (SE) Education because programming heterogeneous systems requires a mix of skills from all three side of the PE world (Fig. A), i. e. even also from Configware Engineering (CE). By migration of an application from SE to FE / CE, for instance, a different algorithm may be needed. So, for instance, the sequential Bubble Sort algorithms has to be converted into the Shuffle Sort algorithm to avoid accessing conflicts caused by parallelism .
Why a Duality of Machine Paradigms ?
Reconfigurable Computing goes into every application [X]
|Search Google (for the number of
hits see the line " Results")
Bing (for the number of hits see
the line " Results")
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The von Neumann machine paradigm does not support configware. Configware is supported by the data-stream-basedKress-Kung machine paradigm (anti machine paradigm). Such data stream machines are programmed from 2 different sources: by flowware, which programs the data streams flowing from and to the machine's DPU (data path unit) or DPA (DPU array), and, by configware.The von Neumann paradigm describes the CPU such, that it encapsulates the DPU (DataPath Unit, or ALU) together with the program counter (figure 1). The behaviour of the program counter is programmed by Software (figure 2).
About the terminology: the Kress-Kung machine is a generalization (Kress) of the systolic array (first popularized by H. T. Kung). The von Neumann paradigm is instruction-stream-based, whereas the anti machine paradigm (Kress-Kung paradigm) is data-stream-based. The systolic array (Kung machine) could be used only for applications with strictly regular data-dependencies yielding pipe networks with only uniform linear pipes. The Kress-Kung array is the generalization [Rainer Kress] of the Kung array by a new synthesis methodology, replacing algebraic mapping methods by general optimization, such as for instance, by simulated annealing [Rainer Kress], so also any wild forms of non-regular pipe networks are supported, so that reconfigurability makes sense.
The Kress-Kung machine (anti machine) is data-stream-based, but not instruction-stream-based. The Kress-Kung machine (anti machine) has no CPU. If it is hardwired, it has a DPU instead, or even a DPA (DPU array). If it is reconfigurable, it has a rDPU or rDPA instead (fig. 4). Instead of a program counter the Kress-Kung machine (anti machine) has one or several data counters, which are located with the memory bank (fig. 4), but not with the (r)DPU nor (r)DPA. The run time bevavour of the data counter(s) is programmed by Flowware (fig. 3).
Apropos Kung: in the early days of the
Kung array, three different scientist carrying the name "Kung" have
been involved: (1.) H. T. Kung (at that time at Carnegie-Mellon, now at
Harvard, USA) who
has been visible first in this scene by popularizing systolic arrays,
(2.) S.Y. Kung (Princeton) who has written an early book on systolic
arrays, and, (3.)
also a student with the name Kung (sorry, I forgot his
first names and affiliation), having been co-author of some early
on systolic arrays.
Structural programming by Configware
in Space. That's why
versus Software means Computing
in Space and Time versus Computing in Time only.
Figure 8 (Kress-Kung machine version) illustrates, why time to space migration removes the memory cycles needed for the instruction-stream-based CPU-executed version shown in fig. 7. Fig. 9 lists a few spee-up factors having been published. A more recent speed-up factor is 28000 for cracking encrypted code. Fig. 10 summarizes some speed-up mechanisms obtaines ba time to space migration.
 Burton Smith (keynote): Reinventing Computing; LACSI Symposium 2006, Santa Fe, NM, USA, http://www.cct.lsu.edu/~estrabd/LACSI2006/Smith.pdf
 R. Hartenstein: The Grand Challenge To Reinvent Computing - A new World Model of Computing; CSBC_2010 - XXX Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, July 20 - 23, 2010, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil http://www.inf.pucminas.br/sbc2010/anais/pdf/semish/st03_02.pdf
 R. Hartenstein, A. G. Hirschbiel, M. Weber: MOM-map-oriented machine-a partly custom-designed architecture compared to standard hardware; Proc. IEEE CompEuro, Hamburg, Germany, May 1989
 R. Hartenstein (keynote): Reconfigurable Computing: boosting Software Education for the Multicore Era; IV Southern Programmable Logic Conference (SPL 2010), Porto Galinhas Beach, Pernambuco, Brasil, 24-26 March 2010
 Joao Cardoso, Michael Huebner (Editors): ―Reconfigurable Computing‖ Springer Verlag 2010
 Voros, Nikolaos; Rosti, Alberto; Hübner, Michael (Eds.): "Dynamic System Reconfiguration in Heterogeneous Platforms - The MORPHEUS Approach"; Springer Verlag, 2009
 Ch. Bobda: Introduction to Reconfigurable Computing - Architectures, Algorithms, Applications; Springer, 2007
 R. Hartenstein: The von Neumann Syndrome; Stamatis Vassiliadis Memorial Symp., Sep 2007, Delft, NL
 M. Duhl: Incremental Development and Description of a Shuffle Sort Array Circuit in hyperKARL from the Algorithm Representation of the Bubble Sort Algorithm; Projektarbeit, Informatik, Univ. Kaiserslautern 1988
goes into every application
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|search Flowware with Google | Yahoo | BING||search Data Stream with Google | Yahoo | BING||
|search Kress Array with Google | Yahoo | BING||search Anti Machine with Google | Yahoo | BING||invited talks|
|Impressum||search Xputer with Google | Yahoo | BING |||literature|
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